The Kyoto Protocol Was An International Agreement To Quizlet
Ban Ki Moon, Secretary-General of the United Nations, called on world leaders to reach an agreement on the fight against global warming at the 69th session of the United Nations General Assembly held in New York on 23 September 2014. The next climate summit was held in Paris in 2015, which gave birth to the Paris Agreement, the successor to the Kyoto Protocol. The Paris Climate Agreement is a pioneering environmental pact adopted in 2015 by almost all nations to combat climate change and its negative effects. The agreement contains commitments from all major GHG-emitting countries to reduce their climate pollution and strengthen these commitments over time. Global emissions increased until 2005, when the Kyoto Protocol became international law, even though it was adopted in 1997. For many countries, including in the EU, things seem to be going well. They planned to meet or exceed their targets under the agreement by 2011. But others have lagged behind. Mr. Grubb (2003), however, commented that the United States, which has per capita emissions twice as high as most other OECD countries, is vulnerable to insinuation that it has enormous potential for reduction. From this perspective, the United States has been forced to reduce emissions more sharply than other countries.  Grubb (2003) also noted that, two or three years after the Kyoto agreement, the usual economic outlook was that emissions from EITs would increase sharply with the recovery of their economies. In reality, EIT emissions have not increased as sharply as many models had predicted.
 The protocol defines a “compliance” mechanism as a “monitoring of compliance with commitments and sanctions in the event of non-compliance”.  According to Grubb (2003), , the explicit consequences of non-compliance with the Treaty are small compared to national law.  Nevertheless, the conformity part of the contract was highly controversial in the Marrakesh Agreements.  National emission targets set out in the Kyoto Protocol exclude international air and maritime transport. The Kyoto Parties can use land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) to achieve their targets.  LULUCF activities are also referred to as “wells”. Changes in sinks and land use can have an impact on climate and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change`s special report on land use, land use planning and forestry estimates that, since 1750, one third of global warming has been caused by land-use change.  The definition of forestry under the Kyoto Protocol is subject to specific criteria. The protocol divided countries into two groups: Annex I contained industrialized countries and non-Annex I concerned developing countries. The Protocol has introduced emission limitations only for Annex I countries.
Non-Annex I countries have participated by investing in emission reduction projects in their countries. The protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997, when greenhouse gases quickly threatened our climate, life on Earth and the planet itself. Today, the Kyoto Protocol continues to live in other forms and its subjects are still under discussion. Gupta et al. (2007) evaluated the climate policy literature. They found that no relevant assessment of the UNFCCC or its protocol has stated that these agreements have been or will be successful in addressing the climate problem.  These assessments provided that the UNFCCC or its protocol would not be amended. The Framework Convention and its Protocol contain provisions for future policies. An international day of action was planned for 3 December 2005, coinciding with the meeting of the parties in Montreal. The planned events were approved by the Assembly of Movements of the World Social Forum. In May 2013, 191 countries and one regional economic organization (EC) ratified the agreement, accounting for more than 61.6% of 1990 emissions from Annex I countries.  One of the 191 states that ratified Canada renounced the protocol.
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